Pelvis & Pelvic floor Anatomy

Pelvis & Pelvic floor

Pelvic floor is a super trendy expression with new exercises to do or machine to train them. We use it more and more as we realised how it is important for women to protect and to exercise it correctly. But do you actually know what is it exactly? Do you  have an idea how it looks like? No?

So today let's have a look at Pelvis & Pelvic floor Anatomy in order to understand how it works and to then be able to protect and exercise it correctly!

Pelvis bones

It is a complex of bone enclosing visceral organ of the perineum

Pelvis bone and pelvic floor muscles

Pelvis bone and pelvic floor muscles (anterior view)

  • #1: Pubis symphysis is a junction (joint) between two bones. In pregnancy a lot of pressure is applied  on this junction and may lead to inflammation and pain in this area or spread lower through the adductor muscles which insert directly on the Pubis symphysis
  • #2: Ischions are the bony prominence on which we sat. In pregnancy, this area is often painful due to muscles spasm of the piriform (here a video to stretch it)
upper view of pelvis and pelvic floor

Pelvis and Pelvic Floor muscles (upper view)

  •  #1 : Iliac crest are the bony prominences you can feel on the side of your lower abdomen
  • #2 : vertebrae
  • #3: Pubis symphysis
Pelvis Bone & Pelvic Floor muscles (posterior view)

Pelvis Bone & Pelvic Floor muscles (posterior view)

  • #1 Vertebrae
  • #2 Sacrum is a big bone at the end of your spine. It ends with a small bone coccyx!
  • #3 Coccyx

Genital organ

Pelvis organs (side view)

Genital organs (side view)


  • #1 Ovary
  • #2 Uterus is held by ligaments attached to the sacrum
  • #3 Bladder rest on the pubis symphysis
  • #4 Vagina is a big gap in the middle of the pelvis
  • #5 Urethra is a canal to empty the bladder
  • #6 Sacrum
  • #7 Rectum is terminated by an angle and the anus to retain faeces allowing anal continence
  • #8 Pelvic floor muscles
  • #9 Vaginal opening



Pelvic Floor muscles

These muscles form a hammock holding the pelvis organs (bladder, uterus, vagina, rectum…) in place.

Pelvic floor muscles view from below

Pelvic floor muscles view from below


  • #1 Urethral orifice
  • #2 Vagina
  • #3 Anus








Perineum (External view)

Perineum (External view)

Here you see what is visible from the outside:

  • 1# Clitoris
  • 2# Labia minora
  • 3# Urethral Orifice
  • 4# Labia majora
  • 5# Vagina






Now let’s see the muscles hiding behind, the pelvic floor muscles!
There are 3 different layers: superficial, intermediate and deep muscles.

Superficial and intermediate pelvic floor muscles

Superficial and intermediate pelvic floor muscles

  • 1# Ischiocavernosus muscle
  • 2# Superficial transverse perineal muscle helps to close the urethra and allow urine continence
  • 3# External anal sphincter as suggest by it is name, it close the anus 😉
  • 4# Bulbospongiosus muscle inserts around the clitoris. It helps to erect it and to close the vaginal opening
  • 5# External urethral sphincter as its name say, it close the urethra and allow urine continence
  • 6# Bulbo coccygeal muscle is an involuntary muscle and also helps to close the vaginal opening. It is always tear during natural birth
  • 7# Fibrous Perineal body
Deep pelvic floor muscles

Deep pelvic floor muscles

  • #1 & #2 Levator ani muscles allow anus contraction and anal continence but also trigger its relaxation allowing defecation.

I hope this rapid review of Pelvis and Pelvic floor muscles anatomy will help you to understand what is going on down there.
As usual, don't hesitate to ask your questions in the comment below!



  1. Great layout! And the bulbo coccygeal muscle doesnt always tear during a natural vaginal birth. Sure, sometimes there are tears, but not always, and some tears occur elsewhere.

    Thanks for this great article!

    • Virgil

      You’re welcome and thank you for your comment 🙂

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